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光伏发电原理和运行维护

返回列表 来源: 康宏辉科技新能源 发布日期: 2022.05.18 浏览次数:

光伏发电的历史起源:

  1839年, 19岁的法国贝克勒尔做物理实验时,发现在导电液中的两种金属电极用光照射时电流会加强,从而发现了“光生伏打效应”。

  1930年,朗格首次提出用“光伏效应”制造太阳能电池,使太阳能变成电能。

  1932年奥杜博特和斯托拉制成第一块“硫化镉”太阳能电池。

  1941年奥杜在硅上发现光伏效应。

  1954年美国贝尔实验室恰宾、富勒和皮尔松开发出效率为 6%的单晶硅太阳能电池,这是世界上第一个有实用价值的太阳能电池,同年威客首次发现了 砷化镍 有光伏效应,并在玻璃上沉积硫化 ,制成了太阳能电池,太阳光转化为电能的实用光伏发电技术由此诞生并发展起来。


1.  什么是分布式光伏发电

   分布式光伏发电是一种新型的、具有广阔发展前景的发电和能源综合利用方式,它倡导就近发电、就近并网、就近转换、就近使用。目前应用最为广泛的分布式光伏发电系统是建在建筑屋顶的光伏发电项目。 该类项目必须接入公共电网,公共电网一起为附近的用户供电。

  分布式光伏发电,又称分散式发电或分布式供能,是区别大规模集中式光伏发电的一个名词,特指在用户场地附近建设,运行方式以用户侧自发自用、多余电量上网,且在配电系统平衡调节为特征的光伏发电设施。其运行模式是:太阳能电池组件将太阳能转换成电能,然后将所产生的电能通过并网逆变器逆变成交流电供给用户使用,多或不足的电力通过联接电网来调节。

2.  什么是配电网?

  配电网是为了方便研究计算,将电网分为输电网和配电网。一般来讲将 35KV及以上电压等级的电网为输电网,10KV及以下电压等级的电网为配电网,配电网的作用是将电能分配给用户。 配电网分为配电变电所 配电线路。

  一些观点认为,配电网输电网应按电压等级划分, 220KV及以上电压等级属于配电网,110KV及以下属于输电网。 另一些观点认为,在具体实践中,一些工业园区和经济开发区,由于园区内用户用电需量、生产工艺、供电安全等方面的要求,220(330)KV变压器作为终端用户站向用户配送电的情况也很政因此区分“配电网”和“输电网”重点不在电压等级,而要看其功能。



3.  为什么说光伏电力是绿色低碳能源

  据了解,光伏发电具有显著的能源、环保和经济效益,是最优质的绿色能源之一。我国平均日照条件下,光伏发电系统全寿命周期内能量回报超过其能源消耗的15倍以上,光伏发电的碳排放量仅是燃煤发电的5%左右。

  欧盟已提出2030年光伏发电约占总发电量15%的宏伟愿景。世界发达国家已经将其作为战略性新型产业,并在近20年中获得了快速发展。我国面临着更为严峻的能源和环境压力,如参加比欧盟相同的光伏占发电量15%的目标,则到2030年我国光伏总装机容量将达到10.5亿千瓦,按年发电1200小时计算,年发电量可达12600亿千瓦时,相当于2012全国总用电量的25%,可节约用煤4.08亿吨标准煤,实现减排二氧化碳约9.9亿吨,年减排二氧化硫、氮氧化物、粉尘分别达到914万吨、184万吨、23万吨,同时可减少因燃煤发电带来的固废排放1.4亿吨和用水31.75亿吨。根据世界自然基金会(WWF)研究结果:从减排二氧化碳效果而言,安装1平米太阳能光伏相当于指数造林100平米,发展光伏发电等可再生能源将是根本上解决雾霾、酸雨等环境问题的有效手段。

4.  光伏发电系统由哪些部件构成?

  光伏发电系统通常由光伏方阵、蓄电池组、蓄电池控制器、逆变器、交流配电柜和太阳跟踪控制系统等设备组成:高倍聚光光伏系统(HCPV)还包括聚光部分(通常为聚光透镜或者反射镜)。


Tionscnamh stairiúil ghiniúcháin cumhachta fótáilteach:
I 1839, nuair a rinne Becquerel den Fhrainc, 19 bliana d'aois, taithí fhisiciúil, fhaigh sé go mbeadh an sruth ag méadú nuair a raibh an dá leictreoid mhiotail sa leachtach seoltach ionradaithe le solas, mar sin fuair sé an "éifeacht photovoltaic".
In 1930, Langer first proposed to use "photovoltaic effect" to manufacture solar cells to turn solar energy into electric energy.
In 1932, audubot and stora made the first "cadmium sulfide" solar cell.
In 1941, ODU discovered the photovoltaic effect on silicon.
In 1954, Bell Laboratories chabin, fuller and Pearson developed monocrystalline silicon solar cells with an efficiency of 6%, which is the first solar cell with practical value in the world. In the same year, Witkey first discovered that nickel arsenide has photovoltaic effect, deposited nickel sulfide on glass and made solar cells. The practical photovoltaic power generation technology of converting sunlight into electric energy was born and developed.
1. Cad é an táirgeadh cumhachta photóvoltaach a dháiltear?
Distributed photovoltaic power generation is a new and promising way of power generation and comprehensive utilization of energy. It advocates nearby power generation, nearby grid connection, nearby conversion and nearby use. At present, the most widely used distributed photovoltaic power generation system is the photovoltaic power generation project built on the roof of the building. Such projects must be connected to the public power grid to supply power to nearby users together with the public power grid.
Distributed photovoltaic power generation, also known as distributed power generation or distributed energy supply, is a term that distinguishes large-scale centralized photovoltaic power generation. It especially refers to the photovoltaic power generation facilities built near the user's site, whose operation mode is spontaneous self consumption on the user's side, excess power on the Internet, and balanced regulation in the distribution system. Is é an modh oibriúcháin atá aige: déanann an modúl cella ghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrianghrian
2. What is distribution network?
Distribution network is to facilitate research and calculation. It is divided into transmission network and distribution network. Generally speaking, the power grid with voltage level of 35kV and above is the transmission network, and the power grid with voltage level of 10kV and below is the distribution network. The function of the distribution network is to distribute electric energy to users. Déantar an líonra dáileála a roinnt i bhfostáisiún dáileála agus i líne dáileála.
Some views believe that the distribution network and transmission network should be divided according to the voltage level. The voltage level of 220kV and above belongs to the distribution network, and 110kV and below belongs to the transmission network. I bhfianaise tomhaltas sonrach cumhachta 220 kV stáisiún soláthair cumhachta agus 330 kV stáisiún dáileála cumhachta sa pháirc, meastar freisin go bhfuil tomhaltas cumhachta 220 kV stáisiún soláthair cumhachta sa pháirc an-sábháilte de bharr riachtanais eacnamaíocha sonracha úsáideoirí sa limistéar forbartha tionsclaíoch Dá bhrí sin, ní an leibhéal naphta é an fócas a dhéantar idirdhealú idir "líonra dáileála" agus "líonra tarchurtha", ach a fheidhm.

3. Cén fáth is fuinneamh glas agus ísealcharbóin é cumhacht photóvoltaach?
Tuigtear go bhfuil fuinneamh suntasach, cosaint an chomhshaoil agus tairbhí eacnamaíocha ag an gcruthú cumhachta photóvoltaach. Under the average sunshine conditions in China, the energy return of photovoltaic power generation system in the whole life cycle exceeds more than 15 times of its energy consumption, and the carbon emission of photovoltaic power generation is only about 5% of that of coal-fired power generation.
The EU has put forward a grand vision that photovoltaic power generation will account for about 15% of the total power generation in 2030. Tá tíortha forbartha sa domhan tar éis meas a thabhairt ar thionscal nua straitéiseach agus forbairt tapa a bhaint amach sna 20 bliana anuas. Tá an tSín ag dul i ngleic le brú níos mó ar fhuinneamh agus ar an gcomhshaol. Má bhíonn an tSín rannpháirteach sa sprioc céanna a chuireann an photóoltaic 15% den ghiniúint cumhachta san AE, sroichfidh sé acmhainn iomlán suiteáilte an photóoltaic sa tSín 1,05 billiún kw faoin mbliain 2030. Arna ríomh faoi 1200 uair an chloig de ghiniúint bhliantúil cumhachta, sroichfidh an ghiniúint bhliantúil cumhachta 1260 billiún kwh, is ionann le 25% den tom Nitrogen oxides and dust can reach 9.14 million tons, 1.84 million tons and 230000 tons respectively. At the same time, it can reduce 140 million tons of solid waste emission and 3.175 billion tons of water consumption caused by coal-fired power generation. According to the research results of the World Wide Fund for nature (WWF): in terms of carbon dioxide emission reduction effect, the installation of 1 square meter of solar photovoltaic is equivalent to 100 square meters of index afforestation. The development of renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation will be an effective means to fundamentally solve environmental problems such as haze and acid rain.
4. Cad iad na comhpháirteanna den chóras táirgthe cumhachta fótáilteach?
Photovoltaic power generation system is usually composed of photovoltaic array, battery pack, battery controller, inverter, AC distribution cabinet, solar tracking control system and other equipment: high power concentrating photovoltaic system (HCPV) also includes concentrating part (usually condensing lens or mirror).

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