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光伏发电补贴的政策及流程梳理
返回列表 来源: 全球光伏 发布日期: 2022.05.20 浏览次数:
家用太阳能发电
随着环境和能源问题的日益突出,我国对太阳能光伏发电的政策支持力度也不断加大。

自2005年颁布《可再生能源法》后,陆续出台了《可再生能源电价附加补助资金管理暂行办法》、《国务院关于促进光伏产业发展的若干意见》、《可再生能源发展专项资金管理暂行办法》等支持可再生能源的政策法规。

在对国家层面法律、政策进行调研的基础上,结合近期项目经验,我们对光伏电站申请电价补贴的流程、审核及补贴标准等问题进行了如下梳理。



电价补贴政策概述


我国光伏电站主要分为集中式光伏电站和分布式光伏电站两类,法规及政策方面对两类光伏电站申请电价补贴的流程、审核及补贴标准也不尽相同。

对于集中式光伏发电我国根据各地太阳能资源条件和建设成本将全国分为三类太阳能资源区,三类资源区燃煤机组标杆上网电价分别为每千瓦时0.9元,0.95元和1元(不排除地方为鼓励光伏发电而制定高于标杆价的上网电价标准的情况,一般情况下高出部分由省级财政承担)。电网企业可就光伏电站标杆上网电价高出当地燃煤机组标杆上网电价的部分,申请可再生能源发电补贴资金。

对于分布式光伏电站我国实行全电量补贴政策,电价补贴标准为每千瓦时0.42元(含税), 通过可再生能源发展基金支付给电网企业后由电网企业转付给发电企业。对分布式光伏发电系统中自用有余上网的电量,由电网企业按照当地燃煤机组标杆上网电价 收购。此外,分布式光伏发电系统自用电量无需缴纳随电价征收的各类基金和附加,以及系统备用容量费和其他相关并网服务费。
申请电价补贴的流程



国 家能源局通常于年初,在综合考虑全国光伏发电发展规划、各地区上一年度建设情况、电力市场条件及各方面意见的基础上,编制该年的光伏发电建设实施方案(例 如,国家能源局于2015年3月16日发布了《国家能源局关于下达2015年光伏发电建设实施方案的通知》)。光伏发电建设实施方案将规定各地区新开工的 集中式光伏电站和分布式光伏电站的总规模,规模内的项目具备享受国家可再生能源基金补贴资格。集中式光伏发电和分布式发电申请电价补贴的条件、流程具体如下:

集中式光伏发电


根据《可再生能源电价附加补助资金管理暂行办法》,申请补助的项目必须符合以下条件:

1.属于《财政部、国家发展改革委、国家能源局关于印发<可再生能源发展基金征收使用管理暂行办法>的通知》规定的补助范围(可再生能源电价附加收入的补助范围:1)电网企业按照国务院价格主管部门确定的上网电价,或者根据法律规定通过招标等竞争性方式确定的上网电价,收购可再生能源电量所发生的费用,高于按照常规能源发电平均上网电价计算所发生费用之间的差额;2)执行当地分类销售电价,且由国家投资或者补贴建设的公共可再生能源独立电力系统,其合理的运行和管理费用超出销售电价的部分;3)电网企业为收购可再生能源电量而支付的合理的接网费用以及其他合理的相关费用,不能通过销售电价回收的部分。);


2.已完成审批、核准或备案,且已经过国家能源局审核确认;


3.上网电价已经价格主管部门审核批复。财政部、国家发展改革委、国家能源局对地方上报材料进行审核,并将符合条件的项目列入可再生能源电价附加资金补助目录。

可再生能源电价附加补助资金原则上实行按季预拨、年终清算。省级电网企业、地方独立电网企业应根据可再生能源上网电价和实际收购的可再生能源发电上网电量,按月与可再生能源发电企业结算电费。国家电网公司和南方电网公司范围内的并网发电项目和接网工程,补贴资金不再通过省级财政部门拨付,而是由中央财政直接拨付给国家电网公司、南方电网公司。

分布式发电


根据《关于分布式光伏发电实行按照电量补贴政策等有关问题的通知》,申请补贴的分布式光伏发电项目必须符合如下条件:

1.按照程序完成备案;


2.项目建成投产,符合并网相关条件,并完成并网验收等电网接入工作。符合上述条件的项目可向所在地电网企业提出申请,经同级财政、价格、能源主管部门审核后逐级上报。财政部、国家发展改革委、国家能源局对报送项目组织审核,并将符合条件的项目列入补助目录。中央财政按季向国家电网公司、南方电网公司及地方独立电网企业所在省级财政部门预拨补贴资金。电网企业根据项目发电量和国家确定的补贴标准,按电费结算周期及时支付补贴资金。
典型地区的实践操作



根据我们在光伏项目并购领域的项目经验,特此挑选内蒙古、河北和辽宁三地落实光伏补贴政策的具体情况进行对比和说明。


内蒙古


内蒙古太阳能资源较为丰富,光伏项目的投资竞争相对激烈,各盟市能源主管部门每年年末根据自治区下达的年度规模指标,编制下一年度本地区具备投产能力的项目建设实施方案,该方案中的太阳能电站必须是已备案并取得电网企业接入系统审查意见的项目。列入国家年度建设实施方案的太阳能电站备案项目,应在办理完土地、环保、节能、安全、规划、水土保持、社会稳定风险评估等手续后尽快开工建设。建完投产的太阳能电站项目,自取得自治区能源局出具的项目竣工验收复核意见后方可申报可再生能源电价附加资金补贴。补贴标准参照适用国家发布的光伏项目补贴标准。


河北


根据我们在河北省内的项目经验,并结合我们与河北省能源局的沟通,河北省申报可再生能源电价附加资金补贴的流程与内蒙古并不完全相同,光伏项目一般在被纳入建设实施方案后才进行备案。备案后的项目应及时建设、投产并组织验收,并将作为安排并网补贴计划的重要依据。具体的补贴标准为:

1.集中式光伏发电按照国家规定的标杆上网电价销售给电网企业,由电网企业申请电价补贴。对于2014年底前建成投产的光伏电站,其上网电价在国家确定的光伏电站标杆上网电价基础上,按照每千瓦时补贴0.3元执行;2015年底前建成投产的补贴0.2元,2017年底前建成投产的补贴0.1元;自投产之日起执行3年;


2.分布式光伏发电实行全电量补贴,补贴标准为每千瓦时0.42元,对于自用有余上网部分,电网企业按照当地燃煤机组标杆上网电价收购。补贴的具体发放时间一般为项目投产后,发放的数额一般会根据当地实际的光伏建设情况分批发放。


辽宁


辽宁省政府从2012年开始,设立了辽宁省太阳能光伏发电上网电价财政补贴资金,对省能源主管部门核准并网发电的太阳能光伏发电项目给予电价补贴。申请电价补贴支持的项目应符合如下条件:

1.应符合《辽宁省“十二五”新兴产业发展规划》和经国家批准的项目所在地区的产业发展规划,并符合国家节能减排、低碳经济、产业结构调整升级的要求;


2.单个项目装机容量不低于300千瓦(kWp);


3.光伏发电项目的业主单位应具有保障项目长期运行的能力,发电系统运行期不少于20年;

4.项目经省能源主管部门核准,按程序完成立项和系统集成、关键设备招标,并由当地电网企业出具同意接入电网意见;

5.项目已经验收后正式投产,并正常运行。集中式和分布式光伏项目适用统一的电价补贴标准,即:2012年12月31日之前建成投产的太阳能光伏发电项目,按0.3元/千瓦时标准给予电价补贴;2012年以后,补贴标准按照年均递减10%的比例确定。根据我们与辽宁省发改委的沟通,辽宁省在“十三五”可能将适用全新的电价补贴政策,但新政策尚在制定过程中。

来源:网络、光伏联播

Gineadh cumhachta gréine teaghlaigh

Le fadhbanna comhshaoil agus fuinnimh atá níos suntasaí agus níos suntasaí, tá tacaíocht bheartais na Síne le haghaidh táirgeadh cumhachta fótáilteach solaire ag méadú freisin.
Since the promulgation of the renewable energy law in 2005, policies and regulations supporting renewable energy have been successively issued, such as the Interim Measures for the administration of additional subsidies for renewable energy electricity prices, several opinions of the State Council on promoting the development of photovoltaic industry, and the Interim Measures for the administration of special funds for renewable energy development.
Bunaithe ar imscrúdú ar dhlíthe agus ar bheartais ar an leibhéal náisiúnta agus i dteannta taithí thionscadail le déanaí, rinneamid caighdeáin phróisis, athbhreithnithe agus fóirdheontais maidir le hiarratas ar stáisiún cumhachta photovoltaic le haghaidh fóirdheontais ar phraghsanna leictreachais mar a lean
Forléargas ar bheartas fóirdheontais taraife
China's photovoltaic power stations are mainly divided into centralized photovoltaic power stations and distributed photovoltaic power stations. In terms of regulations and policies, the process, review and subsidy standards of applying for electricity price subsidies for the two types of photovoltaic power stations are also different.
For centralized photovoltaic power generation, China divides the country into three types of solar energy resource areas according to local solar energy resource conditions and construction costs. The benchmark on grid price of coal-fired units in the three types of resource areas is 0.9 yuan, 0.95 yuan and 1 yuan per kWh respectively (it does not rule out that local governments set on grid price standards higher than the benchmark price to encourage photovoltaic power generation. Generally, the higher part is borne by provincial finance). Power grid enterprises can apply for renewable energy power generation subsidy funds for the part where the benchmark on grid price of photovoltaic power station is higher than the benchmark on grid price of local coal-fired units.
For distributed photovoltaic power stations, China implements the full power subsidy policy, and the price subsidy standard is 0.42 yuan per kWh (including tax). After being paid to power grid enterprises through renewable energy development fund, power grid enterprises will transfer it to power generation enterprises. Déanfaidh gnóthas an ghréasáin chumhachta an leictreachas bhreise le haghaidh féin úsáide sa chóras táirgthe cumhachta fótáilteach dáilte a cheannach de réir an tagarmharc ar phraghas ghréasáin aonad áitiúil a dhéantar guail. In addition, the self consumption of distributed photovoltaic power generation system does not need to pay various funds and surcharges levied with the electricity price, as well as the system reserve capacity fee and other relevant grid connection service fees.
Process of applying for electricity price subsidy
At the beginning of the year, the National Energy Administration usually prepares the implementation plan of photovoltaic power generation construction in that year on the basis of comprehensive consideration of the national photovoltaic power generation development plan, the construction situation of each region in the previous year, power market conditions and opinions of all parties (for example, the national Energy Administration issued the notice of the National Energy Administration on Issuing the implementation plan of photovoltaic power generation construction in 2015 on March 16, 2015). Sonrófar sa phlean cur chun feidhme tógála cumhachta fótáilteach scála iomlán na stáisiún cumhachta fótáilteach lárnaithe agus na stáisiún cumhachta fótáilteach dáilte a thosaíodh nua i réigiúin éagsúla, agus tá tionscadail laistigh den scála incháilithe le haghaidh fóirdheontais ón gCiste Náisiúnta do Fhuinneamh Athnuaite. The conditions and procedures for applying for tariff subsidies for centralized photovoltaic power generation and distributed power generation are as follows:
Giniúint photovoltaic lárnaithe cumhachta
I gcomhréir leis na Bearta Eatramhacha chun cistí fóirdheontais bhreise do phraghas leictreachais fuinnimh inathnuaite a riaradh, ní mór do na tionscadail a iarrann ar fhóirdheontas na coinníollacha seo a leanas a chomhlíonadh:
1. Baineann sé leis an raon feidhme fóirdheontais a shonraítear i bhfógra na hAireachta Airgeadais, an Choimisiúin náisiúnta um Fhorbairt agus um Athchóiriú agus an Riaracháin náisiúnta um Fhuinneamh maidir le priontáil agus dáileadh na mbeart Eatramhach chun an ciste forbartha fuinnimh in-athnuaite a bhailiú agus a úsáid a riarachán (raon feidhme fóirdheontais ioncaim breise praghas leictreachais fuinnimh in-athnuaite: 1) an praghas ar ghréasán a chinnfidh an gnóthas gréasáin chumhachta i gcomhréir le rann The difference between the cost of purchasing renewable energy power and the cost calculated according to the average on grid price of conventional energy power generation; 2) Maidir leis an gcóras poiblí cumhachta neamhspleách ar fuinneamh inathnuaite a chuireann an praghas díolacháin rúnaicmithe áitiúil chun feidhme agus a infheistíonn nó a fhóirdheontaíonn an Stát, is mó ná an praghas díolacháin na costais réasúnacha oibríochta agus 3) na táillí réasúnacha ceangail agus táillí réasúnacha eile gaolmhara a íocann fiontair an ghréasáin chumhachta le haghaidh leictreachas fuinnimh inathnuaite a cheannach, nach féidir é a aisghabháil tríd an bpraghas díolacháin.);
2. It has been approved, approved or filed, and has been reviewed and confirmed by the national energy administration;
(3) Tá praghas an ghréasáin formheasta ag an rannóg inniúil. The Ministry of finance, the national development and Reform Commission and the national energy administration shall review the local materials submitted, and list the qualified projects in the catalogue of supplementary funds for renewable energy electricity price.
In principle, the additional subsidy funds for renewable energy electricity price shall be allocated in advance on a quarterly basis and settled at the end of the year. Provincial power grid enterprises and local independent power grid enterprises shall settle electricity charges with renewable energy power generation enterprises on a monthly basis according to the on grid electricity price of renewable energy and the on grid electricity of renewable energy power generation actually purchased. For grid connected power generation projects and grid connection projects within the scope of State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid Corporation, the subsidy funds are no longer allocated by the provincial financial department, but directly allocated by the central finance to the State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid Corporation.
Giniúint dháilte
De réir an fhógra maidir le saincheisteanna a bhaineann le cur chun feidhme bheartas fóirdheontais leictreachais le haghaidh táirgeachta cumhachta fótáilteach dáileáilte, ní mór don tionscadal táirgeachta cumhachta fótáilteach dáileáilte a chuireann iarratas ar fhóirdheontas freastal ar na coinníollacha seo a leanas
1. Comhadú a chríochnú i gcomhréir leis na nósanna imeachta;
2. Tá an tionscadal críochnaithe agus á chur i bhfeidhm, comhlíonann sé na coinníollacha ábhartha maidir le ceangal gréas áin agus comhlíonann sé an obair maidir le ceangal gréasáin amhail glacadh le ceangal gréasáin. Féadfaidh tionscadail a chomhlíonann na coinníollacha thuas feidhm a bheith acu maidir le fiontair an ghréasáin chumhachta áitiúil, agus tuarascáil a dhéanamh ar leibhéal ar leibhéal tar éis go ndéanfaidh ranna inniúla airgeadais, praghsanna agus fuinnimh athbhreithniú ar an leibhéal cé The Ministry of finance, the national development and Reform Commission and the national energy administration shall organize the review of the submitted projects, and list the qualified projects in the subsidy catalogue. The central government shall pre allocate subsidy funds to the provincial financial departments where the State Grid Corporation of China, China Southern Power Grid Corporation and local independent power grid enterprises are located on a quarterly basis. Power grid enterprises shall pay the subsidy funds in time according to the power generation of the project and the subsidy standard determined by the state.
Oibríocht chleachtúil i réimsí cineálacha
Based on our project experience in the field of photovoltaic project M & A, we hereby select Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Liaoning to compare and explain the specific implementation of photovoltaic subsidy policies.
An Mhongóil Thiar
Tá an Mhongóil inmheánach saibhre in acmhainní fuinnimh solaire agus tá an iomaíocht infheistíochta le haghaidh tionscadal photó-fhuinnimh go coibhneasta. Tosóidh tionscadail chomhlíonta na stáisiúin chumhachta solaire a liostaítear sa phlean náisiúnta bliantúil cur chun feidhme tógála tógáil a thosú a luaithe is féidir tar éis dul trí fhoirmiúlachtaí talún, cosanta comhshaoil, caomhnú fuinnimh, sábháilteacht, pleanáil, uisce agus caomhnú talún, measúnú riosca cobhsaíochta Tar éis an tionscadal ar stáisiún cumhachta solaire a chríochnú agus a chur i bhfeidhm, féadfaidh sé iarratas a dhéanamh ar fhóirdheontas breise ciste ar phraghas fuinnimh in-athnuaite tar éis tuairim athbhreithnithe a fháil ar ghlacadh le críochnú tionscadail arna eisiúint ag Biúró Fuinnimh an réigiúin uathrialach. The subsidy standard shall refer to the subsidy standard for photovoltaic projects issued by the applicable countries.
Hebei
According to our project experience in Hebei Province and in combination with our communication with the Energy Bureau of Hebei Province, the process of applying for additional fund subsidies for renewable energy electricity price in Hebei Province is not exactly the same as that in Inner Mongolia. Photovoltaic projects are generally filed after they are included in the construction implementation plan. Déanfar na tionscadail taifeadta a thógáil, a chur i bhfeidhm agus a eagrú chun glacadh leo in am, agus úsáidfear iad mar bhonn tábhachtach chun plean fóirdheontais a shocrú maidir le ceangal gréas áin. The specific subsidy standard is:
1. Centralized photovoltaic power generation shall be sold to power grid enterprises according to the benchmark on grid price stipulated by the state, and the power grid enterprises shall apply for price subsidies. For the photovoltaic power stations completed and put into operation before the end of 2014, the on grid price is based on the benchmark on grid price of photovoltaic power stations determined by the state, and the subsidy is 0.3 yuan per kwh; The subsidy for completion and operation before the end of 2015 is 0.2 yuan, and the subsidy for completion and operation before the end of 2017 is 0.1 yuan; 3 years from the date of production;
(2) Déanfar an ghiniúint photovoltaic dháilte cumhachta a fhóirdheontas de réir méid iomlán leictreachais agus is é an caighdeán fóirdheontais 0,42 yuan in aghaidh an chloig kilowatt. The specific payment time of subsidies is generally after the project is put into operation, and the amount will be paid in batches according to the actual local photovoltaic construction.
LiaoningCity name (optional, probably does not need a translation)
Since 2012, Liaoning provincial government has set up a financial subsidy fund for on grid electricity price of solar photovoltaic power generation in Liaoning Province to provide electricity price subsidies for solar photovoltaic power generation projects approved by the provincial energy department for grid connected power generation. Projects applying for electricity price subsidy support shall meet the following conditions:
1. It shall comply with the development plan for emerging industries in the 12th Five Year Plan of Liaoning Province and the industrial development plan of the project area approved by the state, and meet the requirements of national energy conservation and emission reduction, low-carbon economy and industrial structure adjustment and upgrading;
2. The installed capacity of a single project shall not be less than 300 kW;
3. The owner of the photovoltaic power generation project shall have the ability to ensure the long-term operation of the project, and the operation period of the power generation system shall not be less than 20 years;
4. After the project is approved by the provincial energy department, the project initiation, system integration and key equipment bidding shall be completed according to the procedures, and the local power grid enterprise shall issue opinions on agreeing to connect to the power grid;
5.Tar éis glacadh leis an tionscadal, cuirfear sé i bhfeidhm go hoifigiúil agus oibríonn sé de ghnáth. Tá na tionscadail photovoltaic lárnaithe agus dáilte faoi réir an chaighdeáin aontaithe um fhóirdheontas praghsanna, is é sin, tabharfar fóirdheontas praghsanna de 0,3 yuan/kwh do thionscadail ghréasáin photovoltaic a chríochnófar agus a chuirfear i bhfeidhm roimh an 31 Nollaig 2012; After 2012, the subsidy standard shall be determined according to the proportion of annual decline of 10%. According to our communication with Liaoning Provincial Development and Reform Commission, Liaoning Province may apply a new electricity price subsidy policy in the 13th five year plan, but the new policy is still in the process of formulation.
Source: network, photovoltaic broadcast

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18188896190
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  • 电话:18188896190
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  • 手机二维码
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